How Stress And Anxiety Can Affect You

A third of British employees are suffering from anxiety, depression, and stress.[1] That’s according to the survey done by PwC, a management consultancy firm, on 2,000 British workers in junior and senior roles. 

What is stress? 

Stress is not necessarily a bad thing.  

Stress is the body’s response to any kind of demand – be it good or bad. Our ancestors have used the onset of stress to alert them of potential danger, such as an imminent attack of a wild animal.  

When we are stressed, our body switches to the fight or flight mode. It leads to a surge of hormones such as adrenaline and cortisol that prepare our body for physical reaction. They cause a boost of energy, an increase in heart rate and breathing, diversion of blood to certain muscles, and shutting down on some of our body’s functions such as digestion.  

What is anxiety? 

Like stress, anxiety is another body’s response to what it perceives as stressful, unfamiliar, and dangerous. It gives us a sense of uneasiness, dread, or distress. In certain cases, anxiety can be a good thing as it makes us properly prepare for situations and keep us stay awake and alert. However, like anything else, having too much stress and anxiety doesn’t do anything good.  

How Prolonged Stress and Anxiety Can Affect Us 

Stress and anxiety are considered normal part of life especially when they’re occasional and temporary. They help us stay alert and prepare for things we are unfamiliar with. But when we are stressed and anxious frequently, these emotional reactions can affect our daily living including our work, studies, and even relationships.[2]  

What Happens to the Brain When We’re Stressed and Anxious 

When we’re stressed and anxious, part of the brain called hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system is activated. This system triggers the production and the release of hormones such as the steroid hormones like glucocorticoids and the primary stress hormone cortisol. It’s the hormone cortisol that’s responsible for organizing different systems of the body in response to the perceived threat.[3]  

Aside from producing and releasing certain hormones, the activated HPA system also causes the release of neurotransmitters or chemical messengers such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine. These chemical messengers activate a part of the brain called the amygdala, which is responsible for triggering an emotional response.  

Neurotransmitters suppress activity of areas of the brain responsible for concentration, inhibition, rational thinking, and short-term memory. This enables us to react quickly to the situation.  

During a stressful and anxiety-provoking situation, the brain also releases a protein that helps modulate the stress and anxiety. This protein decreases our sleep to increase our alertness and gives us a sense of urgency.  

When There’s Too Much Stress and Anxiety 

Chronic stress and anxiety can lead to prolonged activation of the acute physiological stress response. This can significantly impact our immune response, cardiovascular health, and negatively affect our brain.[4]  

Researchers from the Department of Neuroscience of Tufts University School of Medicine found out that chronic stress can trigger seizures.[5] Although the mechanism is not yet fully understood, the study demonstrated a potential mechanism that leads to changes in neuronal activity in hippocampus (part of the brain associated with emotions, memory, and motivation), making the subjects of the study susceptible to seizures.  

The negative effects of prolonged activation of the acute physiological stress response on our brain are also demonstrated in a study led by the Rotman Research Institute Baycrest Health Sciences.[6]   

According to Dr. Linda Mah, the lead author of the review, pathological anxiety and chronic stress can have an impact on the structure and functioning of the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex.  

“Pathological anxiety and chronic stress are associated with structural degeneration and impaired functioning of the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which may account for the increased risk of developing neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression and dementia.”[7] 

Although more longitudinal studies are needed, this study suggests that pharmacological (e.g. use of antidepressant medications) and nonpharmacological interventions (e.g. cognitive-behavioral therapy) may be able to reverse the stress-induced damage in the brain.   

How Hypnotherapy Can Help 

Hypnotherapy is a form of complementary or alternative medicine that can help people suffering from chronic stress and anxiety[8]. A trained therapist uses different methods such as guided relaxation and focused attention to help a person achieved a heightened state of awareness (also known as trance). By being placed in a hypnotic state, a person can be more open to suggestion and discussion. 

This form of therapy is often an aid to psychotherapy as it helps a person explore thoughts and emotions that are hidden from the conscious state.[9]  

As a hypnotherapist, I treat your mind, body, and emotions in one. By working with me, we will explore together the underlying emotions that feed your stress and anxiety and get right down to the source. Throughout the course of our hypnotherapy sessions, I will help you create a different experience on situations that trigger your stress and anxiety, helping you relieve from these distressing emotions.
 

Published by Hypnosis in London on 21 September 2017, written by Malminder Gill.
 

References:
[1] Metro.co.uk. (2017). One third of British employees are dealing with anxiety, depression, or stress, survey finds | Metro News. [online] Available at: http://metro.co.uk/2017/07/13/one-third-of-british-employees-are-dealing-with-anxiety-depression-or-stress-survey-finds-6775619/ [Accessed 20 Sep. 2017].
[2], [4], [7] ScienceDaily. (2017). Chronic stress, anxiety can damage the brain, increase risk of major psychiatric disorders. [online] Available at: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/01/160121121818.htm [Accessed 20 Sep. 2017].

[3] Nytimes.com. (2017). Stress and Anxiety The Body’s Response – Stress and Anxiety Health Information – NY Times Health. [online] Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/symptoms/stress-and-anxiety/the-body’s-response.html?mcubz=1 [Accessed 20 Sep. 2017].
[5] MacKenzie, G. and Maguire, J. (2017). Chronic stress shifts the GABA reversal potential in the hippocampus and increases seizure susceptibility.
[6] ResearchGate, (2017). [online] Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/286444113_Can_anxiety_damage_the_brain [Accessed 20 Sep. 2017].
[8] Girls, A. and Therapy, I. (2017). A Pilot Study of Modular Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Cognitive-Behavioral Hypnotherapy for Treating Anxiety in Iranian Girls | International Journal of Cognitive Therapy. [online] Guilfordjournals.com. Available at: http://guilfordjournals.com/doi/abs/10.1521/ijct_2016_09_01 [Accessed 20 Sep. 2017].
[9]Cold, F., Health, E., Disease, H., Management, P., Conditions, S., Problems, S., Disorders, S., Checker, S., Interviews, E., Boards, M., Guide, I., Doctor, F., Medications, M., Identifier, P., Interactions, C., Drugs, C., Pregnant, T., Management, D., Obesity, W., Recipes, F., Exercise, F., Beauty, H., Balance, H., Relationships, S., Care, O., Health, W., Health, M., Well, A., Teens, H., Kids, F., Pregnant, G., Trimester, F., Trimester, S., Trimester, T., Baby, N., Health, C., Vaccines, C., Kids, R., Cats, H., Dogs, H., Nodes, T., Disease, B., OK?, W., Stand Up, S., Weeks, H., Boards, M., Blogs, E., Center, N. and Disorders, A. (2017). Anxiety Disorders and Hypnosis. [online] WebMD. Available at: http://www.webmd.com/anxiety-panic/guide/does-hypnotherapy-work#1 [Accessed 20 Sep. 2017].